America Vs. America

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First, it involves the rationalization of authority: the replacement of a large number of traditional, religious, familial, and ethnic political authorities by a single, secular, national political authority. This change implies that government is the product of man, not of nature or of God, and that a well-ordered society must have a determinate human source of final authority, obedience to whose positive law takes precedence over other obligations. Rationalization of authority means assertion of the external sovereignty of the nation-state against transnational influences and of the internal sovereignty of the national government against local and regional powers.

It means national integration and the centralization or accumulation of power in recognized national law-making institutions. Secondly, political modernization involves the differentiation of new political functions and the development of specialized structures to perform those functions.

Areas of peculiar competence—legal, military, administrative, scientific—become separated from the political realm, and autonomous, specialized, but subordinate, organs arise to discharge those tasks. Administrative hierarchies become more elaborate, more complex, more disciplined. Office and power are distributed more by achievement and less by ascription.

Thirdly, political modernization involves increased participation in politics by social groups throughout society and the development of new political institutions—such as political parties and interest associations—to organize this participation. Broadened participation in politics may increase control of the people by the government, as in totalitarian states, or it may increase control of the government by the people, as in some democratic ones.

But in all modern states the citizens become directly involved in and affected by governmental affairs. Rationalized authority, differentiated structure, and mass participation thus distinguish modern polities from antecedent polities. London , — See also Holdsworth , W. London , IV, ff. See also Corwin , Edward S. New York See also Black , J. Oxford , See Allen, ; Mcllwain , , ed. Canonhiero, quoted in Friedrich, 15— It was a long-delayed reaction against Richelieu and Louis XIV, a demand to make France a constitutional monarchy, not on the English model, but on the model of a France that had long since passed away.

See also Carsten , F. New York , For a perceptive discussion of the implications that this rejection of sovereignty has for the way in which the political system has adapted to the most modern of problems, see Price , Don K. Pollard , , The Evolution of Parliament , 2nd ed.

London , , who argues that the nationalizing changes began in the late Tudor years. They don't even have to live in them. An American Congressman may get 1, to 2, letters a week from people who elect him.

Cooley , Thomas M. Chicago , I, See also Sutton , Francis X. It is that between symbolic representation and executive control.


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For an elegant—and eloquent—essay on the President as king, see Brogan , D. I am in debt to Richard E. Neustadt for insights into the nature of the American monarchy and into the similarities between White House politics and palace politics. Until the eighteenth century, Privy Councillors, of course, functioned as advisers to the King much as cabinet members now do to the President.


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The seventeenth century witnessed the supersession of feudalism and the Holy Roman Empire by the secular sovereign states of Europe. The twentieth century appears to be witnessing the supersession of the secular sovereign states by something else. Exactly what cannot yet be said. Hartz's theory of fragmentation furnishes an excellent general framework for the analysis of the atrophy of settlement colonies, while his concept of the American liberal consensus in large part explains the preservation of Tudor political institutions. It was between social change and constitutional liberty. Reform would come at the cost of arbitrary government overriding the articulate will and historic institutions of the country.

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Or liberty would be preserved at the cost of perpetuating archaic systems of privilege, property, special rights, class structure, ecclesiastical participation in the state. It was a revolution against the innovations of a modernizing government—in a sense, a revolution against the Enlightenment. It was not in this respect untypical of the time. For more realistic evaluations, see Kilson , Martin L.

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    Gas is more expensive in Europe than in North America and the process of fueling can be different depending on what country you are visiting. European gas stations encourage self-service and you are required to fill your tank by yourself. The payment can be done at the cash counter, although some stations have automated payment kiosks.

    Gas stations are similar in the US, although some places may require you to pay before you pump your gas. Although many pumps have credit card readers on the pump for convenience or allow you to pay in the store. Signs are typically posted on the pump to alert patrons of the correct payment procedure. A crucial part of every main road are traffic lights. How traffic lights are positioned might not be something you typically noticed but there is a difference between Europe and the US.

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    In Europe the lights are located on the near side of the intersection, which will require you to bend your neck to see it. Because of this it is important to stop the car far enough back in order to get a clear view of the lights. On the contrary, the lights are conveniently placed after the intersection in America. Traffic fines are universally loathed by drivers across the globe, but some countries make the experience worse by penalizing rule-breakers with hefty amounts.

    Several other European countries like Sweden, Italy, and Iceland also make the list of the top 10 most expensive countries for speeding. However, it must be noted that the severity of breaking speed limit also depends on the state that you are driving in. One of the biggest differences between driving in Europe and North America are the traffic signs. Most of the countries in Europe follow the guidelines created by the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals. Although both systems work towards the common goal of ensuring road safety, the signage appearance is quite different..

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    For instance, warning signs in America are represented by a yellow diamond, whereas the same is represented in Europe by triangular signs with a red border. We and our trusted partners use cookies and tracking technologies to create custom content for your enjoyment and to provide advertising in line with your interests. We respect your privacy and we are committed to safeguarding your privacy while online at our site. The following discloses the information gathering and dissemination practices for this Web site. This Privacy Policy was last updated on May 10, When you visit our Website, we collect certain information related to your device, such as your IP address, what pages you visit on our Website, whether you were referred to by another website, and at what time you accessed our Website.

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