Media, Elections, And Democracy: Royal Commission on Electoral Reform: 19 (Research Studies, V. 19)

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One method of ind It is believed to have been posted by the alleged shooter, although this has not been officially confirmed. What follows is a review and a By law, Syrian compulsory military service lasts for 18 months; however, since the crisis began in , al Al-Hadath was originally a Christian town a Reports: Personnel Changes In Top Syrian Security Echelons — Under Russian Pressure Introduction In recent days, Facebook pages identified with the Syrian regime have reported on personnel changes in the upper echelons of the Syrian security and intelligence apparatuses.

Among those replaced were the chiefs of the general intelligence, political security, cr President Donald Trump clarified that he has no interest in regime change in Iran but that he does not want Iran to have nuclear weapons. Although it is widely accepted that misdeeds are driven by words, these words may be protected un Incitement Against Jews By U. These pages also serve as a platform for U. Earnest, a year-old nursing student at California State University San Marcos, carried out a shooting attack at the Chabad of Poway synagogue, near San Diego, California, killing one and wounding three Due To U.

The Resistance needs popular assistance. This [fundraising] activity must be stepped up. Introduction On April 22, , the U. It should be clarified that in accordance with the offic In Arab Media, Increased Discussion Of Imminent Israel-Hizbullah War In recent weeks, there has been an upsurge in discussion in the Arab media, particularly in the Lebanese and Syrian media, of the possibility of war this summer between Israel and Hizbullah, and perhaps even of war across the region.

This is despite the fact that Hizbullah Secret Nine months after the parliamentary elections, a new government emerged, in which Hizbullah and its allies hold a large majority, following political struggles from within as well as struggles for As Syria War Enters Ninth Year, Anti-Regime Protests And Armed Operations Resume In Daraa Governorate In the recent weeks, as the eighth year of the Syrian war drew to a close and with the Assad regime in control of most of Syria's territory, media associated with the Syrian opposition has been reporting that popular and armed opposition against the regime and its allies has resu Not only are the kingdom's dire economic straits — one of the factors driving the protests — not improving despite harsh austerity measures,[1] but Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation.

Dispute In Lebanon Over Iran's Offer To Equip Lebanese Army Introduction Having established its status and presence in Syria, it appears that Iran, which has a great deal of influence in Lebanon's political system and daily life via Hizbullah, now seeks to further strengthen its direct control of the country by infiltrating its institu The announcement included guidelines for actions and goals to be achieved for the next 40 years Sanctions Introduction As the impact of the U.

Underlining Iraq's importance to Iran, In recent weeks, the tensi Journalists, pundits, activists, and Islamic Sanctions The exposure of the tunnels dug by Hizbullah into Israeli territory — which constitute a violation of UNSC Resolution and are further evidence that the organization acts on its own initiative in disregard of the state authorities — sparked criticism against Hizbullah in Leba According to the report, the Qatari institution that had funded the schools gradually decre Introduction On November 26, , four-year-old Yasmine Atid and her mothe Egyptian Actress Sparks Controversy By Removing Veil A draft law to ban the niqab full-face veil in public places, which was recently submitted by Egyptian MPs, stirred a heated public debate in the country, and articles for and against it were published in the Egyptian press.

The issue of the Islamic dress code for women per The house, originally owned by the distinguished Joudeh family, was sold in April to a compan On June 27, , the court board of the second criminal court of Sakarya province in Turkey sentenced Halis Bayancuk aka The tension between the two sides rose after a Houthi delegation openly visited Lebanon on August 18, an Introduction Some seven and a half years after the start of the uprising against the regime of Syrian President Bashar Al-Ass As He Begins His Second Term, Egyptian President El-Sisi Escalates Repression Of Critics The first few months of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi's second term have been notable for his suppression of potential opponents and for his prevention of any criticism of him — even from elements who once supported him, or from social activists who so far had been allo This crisis came to a head in , prompting the government to accept an IMF reform plan which involved eliminating subsidies and raising the cost of goods and services.

Numerous videos were uploaded to the Internet depicting the November protests in Iran in the wake of an increase in fuel prices. In a warning to the protesters, he said that his govern He said that it means death to the American leaders — presiden During the lecture, which Umm Iyad Al-Ashqar, the mother and aunt of two Palestinian "martyrs," said in an October 28, interview on Al-Quds Al-Youm Palestine — Islamic Jihad that if every Palestinian mother was selfish with regard to sacrificing her children for the sake of Jihad and Allah, then th He said that the West is unworthy of bearing the standard of human rights, that human rights are the ideological foundation o He promised that the Jihad against Israel will contin Abdulaziz Al-Rays said in an October 30, interview on Diwan Al-Mullah Internet TV Kuwait that people should support their ruler even if he abuses his power, steals money, commits adultery, and drinks alcohol, because obedie Using puns and plays on words, Hmouz said that the J Lebanese political analyst and criminal lawyer Sandrella Merhej said that Hizbullah and the Shiites do not control any areas in Lebanon.

Amer Arnaout, another Embassy in Tehran, Kerman TV Iran aired an anti-American animation that depicted Uncle Sam as a greedy man who drinks oil, wages war, and commands terrorists and gives them medals. Uncle Sam is shown cow Government Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad said in an interview on Russia Today that was published on November 10, that the Syrian Army did not use chemical weapons before handing its stockpile over to the international community and that the accusations and purported evidence of rebe This would enable President Donald Trump cares only about oil and he will have a stroke when he discovers that the new oil field discovered in Iran will produce 53 billion barrel Nuclear Physicist Dr.

Dalloul said that the University of Tehran is on the verge of producing an alternative medici Muasher added th Addressing people who claim that chanting "Deat He said this is r Mahfouz said that the world's largest media companies Embassy in Tehran that the conflict between America and Iran is about values, be Giving an example, he s Death to Israel! Embassy in Tehran, which led to the Iran hostage crisis. The girls told the reporter that they a The report tells the story of three Saudi sisters who work in construction. According to the sisters they initially faced many obstacles from society but have now surmounted them and have Rouhani said that this enrichment activity will be done under the supervision of the IAEA.

Rouhani clarified He said that the nuclear sites experience as ma Wider benefits from PR have been identified in societies using it as compared to those using FPTP , including higher scores on the UN Human Development Index , a measure of health, education, and personal security, higher economic growth, less inequality, and better environmental protection.

Review of the 17th Lok Sabha Elections

Academics agree that the most important influence on proportionality is an electoral district's magnitude , the number of representatives elected from the district. Proportionality improves as the magnitude increases. At one extreme, the binomial electoral system used in Chile between and , [36] a nominally proportional open-list system, features two-member districts. As this system can be expected to result in the election of one candidate from each of the two dominant political blocks in most districts, it is not generally considered proportional.

At the other extreme, where the district encompasses the entire country and with a low minimum threshold, highly proportionate representation of political parties can result , parties gain by broadening their appeal by nominating more minority and women candidates.

The electoral threshold is the minimum vote required to win a seat. The lower the threshold, the higher the proportion of votes contributing to the election of representatives and the lower the proportion of votes wasted.

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All electoral systems have thresholds, either formally defined or as a mathematical consequence of the parameters of the election. A formal threshold usually requires parties to win a certain percentage of the vote in order to be awarded seats from the party lists. However, well regarded candidates who attract good second and third, etc. Thus, in a six-seat district the effective threshold would be 7.


  • The Pillars of Prosperity;
  • A Nice Girl Like Me.
  • Proportional representation.
  • CANADA: Fixing Elections Through Fraud.
  • She Is A Diamond.
  • Innerpoisonal Retaliationships & Multeye-Dementianal Polytics.

Party magnitude is the number of candidates elected from one party in one district. As party magnitude increases a more balanced ticket will be more successful encouraging parties to nominate women and minority candidates for election. But under STV, nominating too many candidates can be counter-productive, splitting the first-preference votes and allowing the candidates to be eliminated before receiving transferred votes from other parties. An example of this was identified in a ward in the Scottish local elections where Labour , putting up three candidates, won only one seat while they might have won two had one of their voters' preferred candidates not stood.

A president is always elected as a winner winner-takes-all , and as such a president may exist above a parliament that was voted in according to a different election format. This situation is found particularly in South America. In the case of Brazil, for instance, an empowered President is elected while the House was elected proportionally. The strong position of the single President is countered by a much divided House and this may result in a weakening of the benefits associated with proportional representation. Compare this situation to the United States, where the strong President is countered by just two parties that can be considered both by themselves as also strong.

With a proportionally elected House, a President may strong-arm certain political issues. A Prime-Minister is never elected, but is a 'derivative' of the general election.


  1. The Conservative Party and the Impact of the 1918 Reform Act.
  2. I Miss Mummy: The true story of a frightened young girl who is desperate to go home.
  3. Ethical considerations regarding public opinion polling during election campaigns.
  4. In most cases, the power of the government is not split among different sections of the government of President, Senate and House and power is found with just the House. A Prime-Minister can be seen more as a manager than as a straight-out leader. Nations with district elections such as the UK and nations with proportionally elected representatives such as Spain can have a Prime-Minister. Other aspects of PR can influence proportionality such as the size of the elected body, the choice of open or closed lists, ballot design, and vote counting methods.

    In many contexts, it is desired to evaluate how well do the awarded seat shares approximate proportionality. However, only exact proportionality has a single unambiguous definition.

    Electoral reform - Wikipedia

    A seat allocation is proportional only if the seat shares are equal to the vote shares. If this condition is not met, the seat allocation is disproportional. Consequently, an index of proportionality will only take two values, one if the allocation is proportional and the other if it is not. In practice, it may be more interesting to examine the degree to which the number of seats won by each party differs from that of a perfectly proportional outcome. In other words, how disproportional is the seat allocation. Unlike exact proportionality, disproportionality does not have a single unambiguous definition.

    Any index that takes the value of zero if the seat allocation is proportional and a larger value if it is not measures disproportionality. Some disproportionality concepts have been mapped to social welfare functions. Disproportionality indexes are sometimes used to evaluate existing and proposed electoral systems. For example, the Canadian Parliament's Special Committee on Electoral Reform recommended that a system be designed to achieve "a Gallagher score of 5 or less".

    II. Planning for polling and results announcement

    This indicated a much lower degree of disproportionality than observed in the Canadian election under first-past-the-post voting , where the Gallagher index was The Loosemore-Hanby index is calculated by subtracting each party's vote share from its seat share, adding up the absolute values ignoring any negative signs , and dividing by two. The Gallagher index is similar, but involves squaring the difference between each party's vote share and seat share, and taking the square root of the sum. Party list proportional representation is an electoral system in which seats are first allocated to parties based on vote share, and then assigned to party-affiliated candidates on the parties' electoral lists.

    This system is used in many countries, including Finland open list , Latvia open list , Sweden open list , Israel national closed list , Brazil open list , Nepal Closed list adopted in in first CA election, the Netherlands open list , Russia closed list , South Africa closed list , Democratic Republic of the Congo open list , and Ukraine open list. For elections to the European Parliament , most member states use open lists; but most large EU countries use closed lists, so that the majority of EP seats are distributed by those. In closed list systems, each party lists its candidates according to the party's candidate selection process.

    This sets the order of candidates on the list and thus, in effect, their probability of being elected. The first candidate on a list, for example, will get the first seat that party wins. Each voter casts a vote for a list of candidates. Voters, therefore, do not have the option to express their preferences at the ballot as to which of a party's candidates are elected into office.

    At war, 1941–45

    There is an intermediate system in Uruguay, where each party presents several closed lists, each representing a faction. Seats are distributed between parties according to the number of votes, and then between the factions within each party. In an open list, voters may vote, depending on the model, for one person, or for two, or indicate their order of preference within the list.

    Electoral Reform

    These votes sometimes rearrange the order of names on the party's list and thus which of its candidates are elected. Nevertheless, the number of candidates elected from the list is determined by the number of votes the list receives.

    In a local list system, parties divide their candidates in single member-like constituencies, which are ranked inside each general party list depending by their percentages. This method allows electors to judge every single candidate as in a FPTP system. Some party list proportional systems with open lists use a two-tier compensatory system, as in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. In Denmark , for example, the country is divided into ten multiple-member voting districts arranged in three regions, electing representatives.

    In addition, 40 compensatory seats are elected. Voters have one vote which can be cast for an individual candidate or for a party list on the district ballot. To determine district winners, candidates are apportioned their share of their party's district list vote plus their individual votes. The compensatory seats are apportioned to the regions according to the party votes aggregated nationally, and then to the districts where the compensatory representatives are determined. In the general election, the district magnitudes, including compensatory representatives, varied between 14 and The basic design of the system has remained unchanged since its introduction in The single transferable vote STV , also called choice voting , [55] [56] is a ranked system : voters rank candidates in order of preference.

    Voting districts usually elect three to seven representatives. The count is cyclic, electing or eliminating candidates and transferring votes until all seats are filled. A candidate is elected whose tally reaches a quota , the minimum vote that guarantees election.